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Key Points Diagnosis and Definitions Î Severe and very severe hypertriglyceridemia increase the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, similar to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III guideline committee's recommendations, the Endocrine Society recommends screening adults for hypertriglyceridemia as part of a lipid panel at least every 5 yr (1|⊕⊕ ). Î Base the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia on fasting triglyceride levels and not on nonfasting triglyceride levels (1|⊕⊕⊕ ). Î AVOID the routine measurement of lipoprotein particle heterogeneity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (1|⊕⊕ ). Measurement of apolipoprotein B (apoB) or lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels can be of value, whereas measurement of other apolipoprotein levels has little clinical value (2|⊕⊕ ). Causes of elevated triglycerides—primary and secondary Î Evaluate individuals found to have any elevation of fasting triglycerides for secondary causes of hyperlipidemia including endocrine conditions and medications. Focus treatment on such secondary causes (1|⊕⊕ ). Î Assess patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia for other cardiovascular risk factors such as central obesity, hypertension, abnormalities of glucose metabolism, and liver dysfunction (1|⊕⊕ ). Î Evaluate patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia for family history of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease to assess genetic causes and future cardiovascular risk (1|⊕⊕ ).

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