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Evaluation and Management of Arrhythmic Risk in Neuromuscular Disorders

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2 Top 10 Take-Home Messages 1. Shared decision-making among patients, their families, and clinicians is essential whenever diagnostic studies or therapies, particularly those that are invasive, are being utilized or contemplated. Counseling and education may result in patients' refusal or withdrawal of such measures if inconsistent with their goals of care, and this should be respected. 2. Cardiac testing is appropriate in most patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) to evaluate for cardiac involvement. The type of cardiac test and the need for and frequency of repeat testing is governed by the underlying disorder, results of previous or new studies, and the patient's symptomatic status. It should be noted that skeletal muscle impairment may mask or confound cardiovascular symptoms, requiring heightened vigilance to cardiac involvement and modification of testing. 3. Previously published guideline-based indications for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) use, including cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and for management of cardiomyopathy (CM) and heart failure may be applied in patients with NMDs. For some indications, the level of evidence (LOE) and/or class of recommendation (COR) in the current document have been modified from prior guidelines to reflect the under- representation of patients with NMDs in past studies. 4. A patient's overall prognosis may be affected by the impact of their underlying neuromuscular condition. Condition-specific technical challenges including body habitus (such as kyphoscoliosis), respiratory muscle weakness and sedation-related risks may influence clinical management. These effects may dominate a patient's clinical picture and prognosis, possibly attenuating the benefit from arrhythmia therapy, particularly CIED implantation, when compared with other patient populations. 5. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and recessive forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) rarely develop bradyarrhythmias, but CM, heart failure, and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) may occur with increased frequency. When indicated, CIED therapy in these patients may pose technical challenges and limited benefit, particularly in those with advanced neuromuscular impairment. Overview

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