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2 Key Points Essential Points ➤ Continuous glucose monitoring systems can effectively achieve glycemic targets and reduce hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. ➤ Patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy or enteral nutrition are at high risk for hyperglycemia and require scheduled insulin therapy in the hospital. ➤ Patients using insulin pump therapy before hospital admission may self- manage these devices with oversight by hospital personnel. ➤ Diabetes self-management education to hospitalized patients can promote improved glycemic control with reductions in the risk for hospital readmission. ➤ Patients with diabetes scheduled for elective surgery may have improved postoperative outcomes when pre-operative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is ≤8% and when blood glucose (BG) values in the immediate pre-operative period are <180 mg/dL. ➤ Providing pre-operative carbohydrate containing beverages to patients with known diabetes is not recommended. ➤ Patients with newly recognized hyperglycemia or well-managed diabetes on non-insulin therapy may be treated with correctional insulin alone as initial therapy at hospital admission. ➤ Scheduled insulin therapy is preferred for patients experiencing persistent blood glucose values >180 mg/dL. ➤ Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors can be used in combination with correction insulin in selected patients with type 2 diabetes who have milder degrees of hyperglycemia provided there are no contraindications to the use of these agents. Abbreviations BBI, basal bolus insulin; BG, blood glucose; CC, carbohydrate counting ; CHO, carbohydrate; CGM, continuous glucose monitoring ; DPP4i, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors; ES, Endocrine Society; GCs, glucocorticoids; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; LOS, length of stay; NPH, neutral protamine Hagedorn; NPO, nil per os; POC-BG, point-of-care blood glucose; SC, subcutaneous; SSI, sliding scale insulin; T1D, type 1 diabetes; T2D, type 2 diabetes

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