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Immunotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma

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Key Points ➤ ➤ Prostate cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. ➤ ➤ Early detection combined with an indolent disease course likely account for the high 5-year survival, approaching 100% for newly diagnosed localized (stage I and II) or regional (stage III) disease. ➤ ➤ However, approximately one-third of early stage patients will develop recurrence, often with metastatic (stage IV) disease. For patients with metastatic disease, 5-year survival rates decrease to 28%. ➤ ➤ Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of initial therapy for metastatic disease, but resistance eventually develops in nearly all men. ➤ ➤ In the past 6 years, a number of therapies have been approved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), including androgen signaling inhibitors (enzalutamide, abiraterone acetate), cytotoxic chemotherapy (cabazitaxel), a radiopharmaceutical (radium-223), and immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T, the first and currently only immunotherapeutic agent approved for mCRPC).

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