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HAP / VAP

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2 Key Points Î Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continue to be frequent complications of hospital care. Together, they are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), accounting for 22% of all HAIs in a multistate point- prevalence survey. Î All-cause mortality associated with VAP has been reported to range from 20%–50%. Î Serious complications from HAP occur in approximately 50% of patients. Table 1. Risk Factors for Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens Risk factors for MDR VAP Prior intravenous antibiotic use within 90 d Septic shock at time of VAP Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) preceding VAP ≥5 days of hospitalization prior to the occurrence of VAP Acute renal replacement therapy prior to VAP onset Risk factors for MDR HAP Prior intravenous antibiotic use within 90 d Risk factors for MRSA VAP/HAP Prior intravenous antibiotic use within 90 d Risk factors for MDR Pseudomonas VAP/HAP Prior intravenous antibiotic use within 90 d Diagnosis

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