OMA Guidelines Bundle

Nutrition - OMA Obesity 2021

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Ornish Diet The Ornish Diet is illustrative of a fat-restricted nutritional intervention. Encouraged Discouraged • Foods are best eaten in their natural form • Vegetables, f ruits, whole grains, and legumes • One serving of a soy product each day • Limited amounts of green tea • Fish oil 3–4 grams each day • Small meals eaten f requently throughout the day • Limit dietary fat: <10% of total daily calories. • Limit dietary cholesterol: ≤10 mg per day. • Limit sugar, sodium, and alcohol. • Avoid animal products (red meat, poultry, and f ish) and caffeine (except green tea). • Avoid foods with trans fatty acids, including vegetable shortening, stick margarines, and commercially prepared foods, such as f rostings; cake, cookie, and biscuit mixes; crackers and microwave popcorn; and deep- f ried foods. • Avoid ref ined carbohydrates and oils. Vegetarian Diet* A vegetarian nutritional intervention includes a meal plan consisting of foods that come mostly from plants. Encouraged Discouraged • Vegetables • Fruits • Whole grains • Legumes • Seeds • Nuts • May include eggs and milk • Fowl • Fish • Beef • Pork • Lamb Vegetarian Diet Variants • Vegan ("Total Vegetarian"): Only plant-based foods (e.g., f ruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, seeds, and nuts) with no animal proteins or animal by- products, such as eggs, milk, or honey • Lacto-vegetarian: Plant foods plus some or all dairy products (e.g., cheese) • Lacto-ovo Vegetarian (or Ovo-lactovegetarian): Plant foods, dairy products, and eggs • Semi or Partial Vegetarian: Plant foods and may include chicken or f ish, dairy products, and eggs, but not red meat • Pescatarian: Plant foods and seafood • Flexitarian: Mostly plant-based foods (minimally processed), with occasional f ish, meat, and animal products in moderation * Plant-based nutritional intake is generally associated with weight loss, reduced risk of heart disease (including heart failure), and beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, some cancers, and possibly all cause mortality. However, these potential benefits may be negated when more healthful plant-based whole foods (i.e., with natural fiber and nutrients) are replaced by ultra-processed foods, fried foods, and refined carbohydrates. Vegetarian diets may also result in deficiencies of micronutrients such as vitamin B12, which may require monitoring and replacement when appropriate.

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