OMA Guidelines Bundle

Nutrition - OMA Obesity 2021

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Page 7 of 9

Fasting (e.g., alternative day, intermittent, time-restricted eating) May contribute to overall caloric restriction. Potential advantages Potential disadvantages • Reducing "decision fatigue" regarding food selection. • Quickly reversible. • May better f it in day-to- day patient scheduling (including Ramadan). • May reduce caloric intake with preservation of lean body mass. • May not reduce resting metabolic rate and total energy expenditure. • May reduce body weight and improve metabolic parameters (e.g. improve insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers). • Does not necessarily emphasize healthful meal quality. • May not be appropriate for patients with eating disorders (e.g., bulimia or binge- eating disorder). • Increases the risk of hypoglycemia among patients with diabetes mellitus who do not appropriately adjust their hypoglycemic anti-diabetes drug treatments (e.g., insulin, sulfonylurea). • Unclear if sustainable on a lifetime basis for a lifelong disease (i.e., obesity). • Most long-term evidence of eff icacy, health benef its and safety are derived f rom animal studies. • Prolonged fasting (not intermittent fasting) may promote gout, urate nephrolithiasis, postural hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. DASH Diet The "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension" (DASH) is a diet pattern promoted by the U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, primarily to treat high blood pressure. Encouraged Discouraged • Vegetables, f ruits, and whole grains • Fat-f ree or low-fat dairy products • Fish, poultry, and lean meats • Nuts, seeds, and legumes • Fiber and the minerals calcium, potassium, and magnesium • Limit sodium: 1,500–2,300 mg per day. • Limit total fat: ~27% of total daily calories. • Limit saturated fat: <6% of total daily calories. • Limit cholesterol: ≤150 mg per day for a 2,100-Calorie eating plan. • Avoid red and processed meats. • Avoid sugar-sweetened beverages. • Avoid foods with added sugars.

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